Mackenzie, Richard W.A. and Maxwell, Neil S. and Castle, Paul C. and Elliott, Bradley and Brickley, Gary and Watt, Peter W. (2012) Intermittent exercise with and without hypoxia improves insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97 (4). E546-E555. ISSN 0021-972X
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-2829
Context: Hypoxia and muscle contraction stimulate glucose transport activity in vitro. Exercise and hypoxia have additive effects on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics (T2D). Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of intermittent exercise with and without hypoxia on acute- and moderate-term glucose kinetics and insulin sensitivity in T2D. Setting: The study was conducted at a university research center. Design, Participants, and Interventions: Eight male T2D patients completed the following: 1) 60 min of continuous exercise at 90% lactate threshold in hypoxia (HyEx60); 2) intermittent exercise at 120% lactate threshold, separated by periods of passive recovery (5:5 min) in hypoxia [Hy5:5; O2 ∼ 14.7 (0.2)%]; and 3) intermittent exercise (5:5 min) at 120% lactate threshold in normoxia (O2 ∼ 20.93%). Main Outcome Measures: Glucose appearance and glucose disappearance, using an adapted non-steady-state one-compartment model were measured. Homeostasis models of insulin resistance (HOMAIR), fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), and β-cell function were calculated 24 and 48 h after exercise conditions. Results: Glucose disappearance increased from baseline (1.85 mg/kg · min−1) compared with 24 h (2.01 min/kg · min−1) after HyEx60 (P = 0.031). No difference was noted for both Hy5:5 (P = 0.064) and normoxia (P = 0.385). Hy5:5 demonstrated improvements in HOMAIR from baseline [d 1, 6.20 (0.40)] when comparisons were made with d 2 [4.83 (0.41)] (P = 0.0013). HOMAIR and FIRI improved in the 24 h (HOMAIR, P = 0.002; FIRI, P = 0.003), remaining reduced 48 h after HyEx60 (HOMAIR, P = 0.028; and FIRI, P = 0.034). Conclusion: HyEx60 offered the greatest improvements in acute and moderate-term glucose control in T2D. Intermittent exercise stimulated glucose disposal and improved after exercise insulin resistance, which was enhanced when exercise was combined with hypoxia (Hy5:5). The data suggest a use of hypoxic exercise in treatment of T2D.
|Research Community:||University of Westminster > Life Sciences, School of|
|Deposited On:||01 Feb 2012 10:15|
|Last Modified:||07 Jun 2013 15:02|
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